Found 4 entries in the Bibliography.
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OVATION Prime (OP) is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power significantly better than\ Kpor other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each magnetic latitude (MLAT) \texttimes magnetic local time (MLT) bin, thus permitting each type of aurora and each location to have differing responses to season and solar wind input\textemdashas indeed they do. We here introduce OVATION Prime-2013, an upgrade to the 2010 version currently widely available. The most notable advantage of OP-2013 is that it uses UV images from the GUVI instrument on the satellite TIMED for high disturbance levels (dΦMP/dt \> 1.2 MWb/s which roughly corresponds to\ Kp = 5+ or 6-). The range of validity is approximately 0 \< dΦMP/dt <= 3.0 MWb/s (Kp\ about 8+). Other upgrades include a reduced susceptibility to salt-and-pepper noise, and smoother interpolation across the postmidnight data gap. The model is tested against an independent data set of hemispheric auroral power from Polar UVI. Over the common range of validity of OP-2010 and OP-2013, the two models predict auroral power essentially identically, primarily because hemispheric power calculations were done in a way to minimize the impact of OP-2010s noise. To quantitatively demonstrate the improvement at high disturbance levels would require multiple very large substorms, which are rare, and insufficiently present in the limited data set of Polar UVI hemispheric power values. Nonetheless, although OP-2010 breaks down in a variety of ways above\ Kp = 5+ or 6-, OP-2013 continues to show the auroral oval advancing equatorward, at least to 55\textdegree MLAT or a bit less, and OP-2013 does not develop spurious large noise patches. We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other precipitation models more generally, as no one model fits best all possible uses.
Published by: Space Weather Published on: Jan-06-2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.610.1002/2014SW001056
The aurora has been related to magnetometer observations for centuries, and to geomagnetic indices for decades. As the number of stations and data processing power increases, just how auroral power (AP) relates to geomagnetic observations becomes a more tractable question. This paper compares Polar UVI AP observations during 1997 with a variety of indices. Local time (LT) versions of the SuperMAG auroral electrojet (SME) are introduced and examined, along with the corresponding upper and lower envelopes (SMU\ and\ SML). Also, the East\textendashwest component,\ BE, is investigated. We also consider whether using any of the local indices is actually better at predicting local AP than a single global index. Each index is separated into 24 LT indices with a sliding 3-h MLT window. The ability to predict AP varies greatly with LT, peaking at 1900 MLT, where about 75\% of the variance (r2) is predicted at 1-min cadence. The aurora is fairly predictable from 1700 MLT \textendash 0400 MLT, roughly the region in which substorms occur. AP is poorly predicted from auroral electrojet indices from 0500 MLT \textendash 1500 MLT, with the minimum at 1000\textendash1300 MLT. In the region of high predictability, the local index which works best is\ BE\ (East\textendashwest), in contrast to long-standing expectations. However using global\ SME\ is better than any local index.\ AP\ is best predicted by combining global\ SME\ with a local index:\ BE\ from 1500\textendash0300 MLT, and either\ SMU\ or\ SML\ from 0300\textendash1500 MLT. In the region of the diffuse aurora, it is better to use a 30 min average than the cotemporaneous 1-min\ SME\ value, while from 1500\textendash0200 MLT the cotemporaneous 1-min\ SME\ works best, suggesting a more direct physical relationship with the auroral circuit. These results suggest a significant role for discrete auroral currents closing locally with Pedersen currents.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020524
Meridian scanning photometer (MSP) data are combined with global ultraviolet images from the Polar Ultraviolet Imager instrument to estimate the timing and propagation speed of shock auroras previously studied using solely space-based ultraviolet auroral imagery. The multispectral nature of the MSPs, including the presence of a Balmer beta channel, enables the discrimination between proton and electron aurora. Following a near-magnetic noon onset, the occurrence of auroral emissions created by shocked precipitating protons and electrons is observed to propagate tailward, along the auroral oval with speeds of several km/s, consistent with the shock propagation speed in the solar wind. In two cases, shock aurora propagation speeds along the auroral oval determined from satellite imagery are confirmed, to within calculated uncertainties, with ground-based timing. The majority of instruments detect low-energy discrete auroral arcs poleward of diffuse, higher-energy aurora. Evidence of a previously reported two-pulse proton aurora shock onset is detected at some, but not all, locations.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019574
The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere toward dawn and out of the ionosphere toward dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multispacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 January 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecraft traveled east-west azimuthally above the auroral region. We show that the SCW has significant azimuthal substructure on scales of 100 km at altitudes of 4000\textendash7000 km. We identify 26 individual current sheets in the Cluster 4 data and 34 individual current sheets in the Cluster 1 data, with Cluster 1 passing through the SCW 120\textendash240 s after Cluster 4 at 1300\textendash2000 km higher altitude. Both spacecraft observed large-scale regions of net upward and downward field-aligned current, consistent with the large-scale characteristics of the SCW, although sheets of oppositely directed currents were observed within both regions. We show that the majority of these current sheets were closely aligned to a north-south direction, in contrast to the expected east-west orientation of the preonset aurora. Comparing our results with observations of the field-aligned current associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs), we conclude that significant questions remain for the explanation of SCW structuring by BBF-driven \textquotedblleftwedgelets.\textquotedblright Our results therefore represent constraints on future modeling and theoretical frameworks on the generation of the SCW.
Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A.; Rae, I.; Watt, C.; Murphy, K.; Wild, J.; Karlsson, T.; Mutel, R.; Owen, C.; Ergun, R.; Masson, A.; Berthomier, M.; Donovan, E.; Frey, H.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.; Zhang, Y.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019302