SSUSI Publications


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Found 120 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 50


Global ionospheric response to the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming event using Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) algorithm

A data assimilation algorithm is used to delineate the time-dependent three-dimensional ionospheric response to the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. We use the Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) algorithm to study the global ionospheric response to the 2009 SSW. This is the first study to utilize global ionospheric measurements in a data assimilation framework to unambiguously characterize atmosphere-ionosphere coupling via tidal modifications during the 2009 SSW event. Model results reve ...

Azeem, I.; Crowley, G.; Honniball, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA020993

atmospheric tides; Data Assimilation; ionosphere/atmosphere interactions; sudden stratospheric warming

The International Reference Ionosphere \textendash Status 2013

This paper describes the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. IRI-2012 includes new models for the electron density and ion densities in the region below the F-peak, a storm-time model for the auroral E-region, an improved electron temperature model that includes variations with solar activity, and for the first time a description of auroral boundaries. In addition, the thermosphere model required for baseline neutral densities and temperatures was upgraded from MSIS-86 to the newer NRLMSI ...

Bilitza, Dieter;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2014.07.032

Forecast; Ionosphere; IRI; Real-Time; Space Weather

Methodology of evaluating the science benefit of various satellite/sensor constellation orbital parameters to an assimilative data forecast model

A methodology for evaluating the science benefit of adding space weather sensor data from a modest number of small satellites to the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements\textemdashFull Physics (GAIM-FP) model is presented. Three orbital scenarios are presented, two focusing on improved coverage of narrowly specified regions of interest, and one on global coverage of the ionosphere as a whole. An Observing System Simulation Experiment is used to obtain qualitative and quantitative results o ...

Balthazor, Richard; McHarg, Matthew; Enloe, Lon; Mueller, Brandon; Barnhart, David; Hoeffner, Zachary; Brown, Robert; Scherliess, Ludger; Wilhelm, Lance;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014RS005426

Ionosphere; modeling

GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of 7\textendash17 March 2012 \textendash Part 2: Interhemispheric comparison

During the ascending phase of solar cycle 24, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the period 7\textendash17 March 2012 caused geomagnetic storms that strongly affected high-latitude ionosphere in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. GPS phase scintillation was observed at northern and southern high latitudes by arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitors (GISTMs) and geodetic-quality GPS receivers sampling at 1 Hz. Mapped as a function of magnetic latitude and magnetic local time (ML ...

Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Spogli, L.; Mitchell, C.; Li, G.; Ning, B.; Cilliers, P.; Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Jayachandran, P.; Jiao, Y.; Morton, Y.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Thomas, E.; Zhang, Y.; Weatherwax, A.; Alfonsi, L.; De Franceschi, G.; Romano, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-657-2015

Ionosphere; ionospheric disturbance; ionospheric irregularities; polar ionosphere

A new technique for remote sensing of O 2 density from 140 to 180 km

Observations of molecular oxygen are difficult to make in the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere between 140 and 200 km altitude. Perhaps the most accurate measurements to date have been obtained from satellite instruments that measure solar occultations of the limb. These do provide height-resolved O2 density measurements, but the nature of this technique is such that the temporal/spatial distribution of the measurements is uneven. Here a new space-based technique is described that utilizes two bright dayglow em ...

Hecht, James; Christensen, Andrew; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebeeca; Budzien, Scott; Stephan, Andrew; Evans, Scott;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062355

technique; thermosphere; composition

Remote Sensing of Earth\textquoterights Limb by TIMED/GUVI: Retrieval of thermospheric composition and temperature

The Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite senses far ultraviolet emissions from O and N2 in the thermosphere. Transformation of far ultraviolet radiances measured on the Earth limb into O, N2, and O2 number densities and temperature quantifies these responses and demonstrates the value of simultaneous altitude and geographic information. Composition and temperature variations are available from 2002 to 2007 ...

Meier, R.; Picone, J.; Drob, D.; Bishop, J.; Emmert, J.; Lean, J.; Stephan, A.; Strickland, D.; Christensen, A.; Paxton, L.; Morrison, D.; Kil, H.; Wolven, B.; Woods, Thomas; Crowley, G.; Gibson, S.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014EA000035

airglow and aurora; thermosphere: composition and chemistry; thermosphere: energy deposition; remote sensing


OVATION Prime-2013: Extension of auroral precipitation model to higher disturbance levels

OVATION Prime (OP) is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power significantly better than\ Kpor other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each magnetic latitude (MLA ...

Newell, P.; Liou, K.; Zhang, Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Paxton, L.; Mitchell, E.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.610.1002/2014SW001056

Aurora; forecasting; precipitation

Correction of astigmatism and coma using analytic theory of aberrations in imaging spectrometer based on concentric off-axis dual reflector system

A specific imaging spectrometer based on a concentric off-axis dual reflector system is proposed, free of astigmatism and coma. The described imaging spectrometer consists of four spherical mirrors and a plane grating. The analytic theory of aberrations and the optical path-length concept are used to derive the astigmatism elimination and coma removal. It is shown that the astigmatism in these imaging spectrometers is eliminated by characterizing three angles, and the coma is corrected when unequal mirror radii are config ...

Chen, Ting; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Li; Chang, Yue; Zheng, Cheng;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1364/AO.53.000565

Equatorial broad plasma depletions associated with the enhanced fountain effect

Lee, Woo; Kil, Hyosub; Kwak, Young-Sil; Paxton, Larry; Zhang, Yongliang; Galkin, Ivan; Batista, Inez;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.110.1002/2013JA019137

The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 \textendash a model of international collaboration

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth\textquoterights ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of C ...

Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2014004

Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) - Gauss Markov (GM) Model: Improved Specifications with Multiple Data Types

The Earth\textquoterights ionosphere is a highly dynamic region that is almost constantly in a state of flux. Solar radiation, geomagnetic activity, chemical reactions, and natural dynamics all act to perturb the state of the ionosphere. The ionosphere changes on time scales of hours to days, with the fine-scale ionospheric structures that are frequently observed lacking in global physics-based models due to time-step and spatial resolution constraints. To properly specify the ionosphere, data is needed, thus data assimil ...

Gardner, L.; Schunk, R.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J.; Zhu, L.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014SW001104

Data Assimilation; Ionosphere; modeling

Local Geomagnetic Indices and the Prediction of Auroral Power

The aurora has been related to magnetometer observations for centuries, and to geomagnetic indices for decades. As the number of stations and data processing power increases, just how auroral power (AP) relates to geomagnetic observations becomes a more tractable question. This paper compares Polar UVI AP observations during 1997 with a variety of indices. Local time (LT) versions of the SuperMAG auroral electrojet (SME) are introduced and examined, along with the corresponding upper and lower envelopes (SMU< ...

Newell, P.; Gjerloev, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020524

Aurora; indices; auroral electrojet; Pedersen current; prediction

Progress toward forecasting of space weather effects on UHF SATCOM after Operation Anaconda

Space weather impacts on communications are often presented as a\ raison d\textquoterightetre\ for studying space weather (e.g., Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society, 2013). Here we consider a communications outage during Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan that may have been related to ionospheric disturbances. Early military operations occurred during the peak of solar cycle 23 when ionospheric variability was enhanced. During Operation Anaconda, the Battle of Takur Gh ...

Kelly, Michael; Comberiate, Joseph; Miller, Ethan; Paxton, Larry;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014SW001081

Ionosphere; scintillation; UHF SATCOM

Statistical relationship between large-scale upward field-aligned currents and electron precipitation

Simultaneous observations of Birkeland currents by the constellation of Iridium satellites and N2\ Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) auroral emissions measured by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) onboard the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to establish relationships between large-scale upward field-aligned currents and electron precipitation during stable current configurations. The electron precipitation was inferred from GUVI data using a statistic ...

Korth, Haje; Zhang, Yongliang; Anderson, Brian; Sotirelis, Thomas; Waters, Colin;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019961

auroral emissions; Birkeland currents; current-precipitation relationship; current-voltage relationship; electron precipitation

Predictions of HF system performance for propagation through disturbed ionospheres measured using low-Earth-orbit satellite radio beacon tomography

The CERTO radio beacon on the C/NOFS satellite sends VHF/UHF radio signals at 150 and 400 MHz to provide measurements of integrated electron density or Total Electron Content (TEC) by an east-west chain of ground receivers in Peru. Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) is used to convert the TEC data into two-dimensional images of electron densities with maximum 5 \texttimes 5 km resolution in Longitude-Altitude space. These images are updated every 95 min as the C/NOFS satellite passes over the receiver network in it ...

Bernhardt, Paul; Hei, Matthew; Siefring, Carl; Wilkens, Matthew;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/rds.v49.710.1002/2014RS005409

HF communications; HF radar; radio beacon tomography

Circumpolar ground-based optical measurements of proton and electron shock aurora

Meridian scanning photometer (MSP) data are combined with global ultraviolet images from the Polar Ultraviolet Imager instrument to estimate the timing and propagation speed of shock auroras previously studied using solely space-based ultraviolet auroral imagery. The multispectral nature of the MSPs, including the presence of a Balmer beta channel, enables the discrimination between proton and electron aurora. Following a near-magnetic noon onset, the occurrence of auroral emissions created by shocked precipitating proton ...

Holmes, J.; Johnsen, M.; Deehr, C.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lorentzen, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019574

Aurora; electron; photometer; proton; scanning; shock

A Method to Calculate the Ionospheric LBH Dayglow Emissions for Large Field of View

LBH dayglow emissions in the ionosphere, produced by the photoelectrons impact on the nitrogen molecules, are the most prominent molecular signals in the far ultraviolet range. Imaging the LBH dayglow emissions from the space can be a powerful method to monitor the state of the upper atmosphere. According to direct excitation theory and spherical geometry, the spectral characteristics of the LBH emission are analyzed and a revised method (RAURIC) to calculate the column emission rate of the LBH dayglow emissions for large ...

Yong-Chao, ZHANG; Fei, HE; Xiao-Xin, ZHANG; Bo, CHEN;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/cjg2.2014.57.issue-210.1002/cjg2.20099

Column Emission Rates; FUV emission; Ionosphere; LBH Bands

In situ spatiotemporal measurements of the detailed azimuthal substructure of the substorm current wedge

The substorm current wedge (SCW) is a fundamental component of geomagnetic substorms. Models tend to describe the SCW as a simple line current flowing into the ionosphere toward dawn and out of the ionosphere toward dusk, linked by a westward electrojet. We use multispacecraft observations from perigee passes of the Cluster 1 and 4 spacecraft during a substorm on 15 January 2010, in conjunction with ground-based observations, to examine the spatial structuring and temporal variability of the SCW. At this time, the spacecr ...

Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A.; Rae, I.; Watt, C.; Murphy, K.; Wild, J.; Karlsson, T.; Mutel, R.; Owen, C.; Ergun, R.; Masson, A.; Berthomier, M.; Donovan, E.; Frey, H.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.; Zhang, Y.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019302

Aurora; Field-aligned current; Magnetosphere; Substorm current wedge; Wedgelets


Comment on \textquotedblleftEmpirical relationship between electron precipitation and far-ultraviolet auroral emissions from DMSP observations\textquotedblright by Sotirelis et al.

Knight, H.; Strickland, D.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v118.1010.1002/jgra.50505

Reply to comment on \textquotedblleftEmpirical relationship between electron precipitation and far-ultraviolet auroral emissions from DMSP observations\textquotedblright

Sotirelis, Thomas; Korth, Haje; Hsieh, Syau-Yun; Zhang, Yongliang; Morrison, Daniel; Paxton, Larry;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v118.1010.1002/jgra.50507

Nightside midlatitude ionospheric arcs: TIMED/GUVI observations

Zhang, Yongliang; Paxton, Larry; Kil, Hyosub;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50327

Empirical relationship between electron precipitation and far-ultraviolet auroral emissions from DMSP observations

Sotirelis, Thomas; Korth, Haje; Hsieh, Syau-Yun; Zhang, Yongliang; Morrison, Daniel; Paxton, Larry;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50157

Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Ionosphere-Thermosphere Understanding through Remote Sensing from Space

Meier, RR;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Determining relative proton and electron auroral LBH emission efficiencies from FUV-ionosonde comparisons-preliminary results

Knight, HK; Galkin, IA; Reinisch, BW; Paxton, L;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Evidence of auroral oval TEC enhancement and simultaneous plasma patch break-off events in the Arctic and Antarctic ionosphere during the initial phase of a geomagnetic storm event at equinox, 26 September 2011

Kinrade, Joe; Mitchell, Cathryn; Paxton, Larry; Bust, Gary;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Geophysical Monograph SeriesSpace WeatherSpace Weather-Lessons from the Meteorologists

Mccoy, Robert;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1029/GM125p0031

An interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation with auroral emission observed at the South Pole and from the DMSP satellite

Prikryl, Paul; Zhang, Yongliang; Ebihara, Yusuke; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Jayachandran, Periyadan; Kinrade, Joe; Mitchell, Cathryn; Weatherwax, Allan; Bust, Gary; Cilliers, Pierre;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

The Mesoscale Ionospheric Simulation Testbed (MIST) Regional Data Assimilation Model

The Mesoscale Ionospheric Simulation Testbed (MIST) provides a regional nowcast and forecast of electron density values and has sufficient resolution to include equatorial plasma bubbles. The SSUSI instrument on the DMSP F18 satellite has high-resolution nightly observations of plasma bubbles at 8 PM local time throughout the current solar maximum. MIST can assimilate SSUSI UV observations, GPS TEC measurements, and SCINDA S4 readings simultaneously into a single scintillation map over a region of interest. MIST also mode ...

Comberiate, J; Kelly, MA; Miller, E; Paxton, L;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Multi-Instrument Observations at High Latitudes

Miller, E; Paxton, L; Schaefer, RK; Weiss, M; Wolven, BC; Zhang, Y;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Observing the Edge of the Inner Radiation Belt: the South Atlantic Anomaly Seen with Photometers in Low Earth Orbit

Schaefer, RK; Wolven, BC; Paxton, L; Romeo, G; Selby, C; Hsieh, SW;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

SSUSI: A Newly Available Resource for the Upper Atmosphere Community to Study the Global Response of the Coupled Ionosphere Thermosphere System

The Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on TIMED was actually the 7th wide field of regard instrument built by APL. Five SSUSI instruments were built by APL and delivered, calibrated and ready for flight between 1994 and 1996. Another instrument, the Near Infrared Spectrograph was flown on the NASA NEAR mission using the SSUSI optical design. The first SSUSI flight was in 2003 on the DMSP F16 spacecraft. Two others have flown since then on DMSP F17 and F18. Two more await flight with the next slated for a Spring 2014 launch ...

Paxton, L.; Schaefer, R.~K.; Weiss, M.; Wolven, B.~C.; Zhang, Y.; Miller, E.; Bust, G.~S.; Romeo, G.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

0355 ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE Thermosphere: composition and chemistry; 2407 IONOSPHERE Auroral ionosphere; 2415 IONOSPHERE Equatorial ionosphere; 7954 SPACE WEATHER Magnetic storms

SSUSI Aurora Forecast Model

Hsieh, S.~W.; Zhang, Y.; Schaefer, R.~K.; Romeo, G.; Paxton, L.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

2431 IONOSPHERE Ionosphere/magnetosphere interactions; 2447 IONOSPHERE Modeling and forecasting; 2704 MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS Auroral phenomena; 2722 MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS Forecasting

Stormtime Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Interactions and Dynamics

Doherty, Patricia; Burke, William; Marcos, Frank; Delay, Susan;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

UV Remote Sensing Data Products-Turning Data Into Knowledge

Weiss, M; Paxton, L; Schaefer, RK; Comberiate, J; Hsieh, SW; Romeo, G; Wolven, BC; Zhang, Y;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:

Validation of Auroral Oval Models Using DMSP SSUSI

Jones, JC;

YEAR: 2013     DOI:


An empirical determination of proton auroral far ultraviolet emission efficiencies using a new nonclimatological proton flux extrapolation method

Knight, HK; Strickland, DJ; Correira, J; Hecht, JH; Straus, PR;

YEAR: 2012     DOI:

Space-Based Three-Dimensional Imaging of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles: Advancing the Understanding of Ionospheric Density Depletions and Scintillation

Comberiate, Joseph;

YEAR: 2012     DOI:


A downward revision of a recently reported proton auroral LBH emission efficiency

Correira, J.; Strickland, D.; Evans, J.; Knight, H.; Hecht, J.;

YEAR: 2011     DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016016

Comparison of solar energy flux Q$_EUV$ (\lt 45 nm) from SSUSI, GUVI, EVE, SEE, and SEM

Correira, J.; Evans, J.~S.; Strickland, D.~J.;

YEAR: 2011     DOI:

AND ASTRONOMY / Instruments and techniques; AND ASTRONOMY / Solar irradiance; AND ASTRONOMY / Ultraviolet emissions; ASTROPHYSICS; [7538] SOLAR PHYSICS; [7549] SOLAR PHYSICS; [7594] SOLAR PHYSICS

Empirical Relationship Between LBH Auroral Emissions and Particle Precipitation

Hsieh, SW; Sotirelis, T; Korth, H; Zhang, Y; Paxton, LJ;

YEAR: 2011     DOI:

Estimating Dayside Regions of Dayglow-Free 135.6 nm UV Radiances for Data Assimilation

Aiello, J; Toigo, AD; Demajistre, R; Schaefer, RK; Paxton, LJ;

YEAR: 2011     DOI:

Mutual Neutralization of Atomic Oxygen Ions Over the Course of the Solar Cycle and Its Effects on Ionospheric Remote Sensing

Comberiate, J; Demajistre, R; Schaefer, RK; Zhang, Y; Paxton, LJ;

YEAR: 2011     DOI:

Solar rotational effects in the ionosphere and thermosphere

Talaat, ER; Hsieh, SW; Smith, D; Zhu, X;

YEAR: 2011     DOI:

Study on spectrograph for ionosphere: a broadband imaging instrument prototype for far-ultraviolet

Yu, Lei; Wang, Shu-rong; Lin, Guan-yu;

YEAR: 2011     DOI: 10.1117/12.895219


Near real-time assimilation in IRI of auroral peak E-region density and equatorward boundary

Zhang, Yongliang; Paxton, Larry; Bilitza, Dieter; Doe, Rick;

YEAR: 2010     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.029

Coordinated UV imaging of equatorial plasma bubbles using TIMED/GUVI and DMSP/SSUSI

Comberiate, Joseph; Paxton, Larry;

YEAR: 2010     DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000546

Continued Development and Validation of the USU GAIM Models

Schunk, Robert;

YEAR: 2010     DOI:

Equatorial Plasma Bubble Climatology and Scintillation Forecasting from DMSP/SSUSI

Comberiate, J.; Paxton, L.~J.;

YEAR: 2010     DOI:

[2415] IONOSPHERE / Equatorial ionosphere; [2494] IONOSPHERE / Instruments and techniques; [6969] RADIO SCIENCE / Remote sensing; [7924] SPACE WEATHER / Forecasting

A new proton auroral extrapolation method applied in the estimation of FUV emission yields

Knight, HK; Strickland, DJ; Correira, J; Evans, JS; Hecht, JH;

YEAR: 2010     DOI:


Does the polar cap disappear under an extended strong northward IMF?

Zhang, Yongliang; Paxton, Larry; Newell, Patrick; Meng, Ching-I.;

YEAR: 2009     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.09.005

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